Sunday, October 26, 2008

Norwich Terrier Colors

It's disappointing to see so many Norwich mixes and faux Norwich Terriers advertised online. Many are APRI registered rather than AKC. I'm amazed at how many don't even resemble Norwich, and it doesn't take a professional to figure out why. The acceptable colors in the Norwich Terrier are all shades of red, wheaten, black & tan, blue & tan, and grizzle. Red is simple, ranging from a light puppy born without pigment called a Pink, to deeper reds. Wheaten is a lighter tan color. Black & Tan are born with the markings as seen in the doberman, but the head and legs turn red as they mature, leaving the saddle back pattern seen in adulthood. Blue & Tan are more gray in color with the same markings. Grizzle is the most misunderstood color and is what many "breeders" are either taking advantage of buyers that don't know the difference, or they are misinformed themselves. I'm seeing many "Norwich" advertised online as grizzle that have the brindle gene. Norwich Terriers do not come in brindle, the Cairn Terrier does. The brindle gene causes a striping pattern in the undercoat seen at birth, as in this photo of brindle Cairn Terrier puppies. Brindle adult Cairn Terriers can vary from lighter brindle to very dark almost black brindles. The striping pattern can be seen in the undercoat and the top coat is more evenly mixed. The Norwich Terrier grizzle will be born with a lighter variation of the black & tan markings like a doberman. As adults they will have a light saddle back with a mixture of red & black hairs. It can become confusing when looking at adult Norwich because some of the black & tan's saddle fades enough that they look like a grizzle saddle back. But there is one thing that is not confusing, and anyone can tell the difference, the Norwich should NOT look like a brindle Cairn! To see many examples of Norwich Terrier color, visit this link It's an excellent example of colors from birth to adulthood. Please don't be fooled by sellers who either fraudulently sell Cairns as Norwich for inflated prices, or who are so misinformed that they believe their brindle is a Norwich. Simply having papers does not mean that they are accurate or even reputable registries.

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Purchase from Ethical Reputable Breeders

So you've decided the Norwich Terrier breed fits what you are looking for, and you're committed to a new addition despite the hard work, sleepless nights, chewed up furniture, potty training, etc. You've begun reading up on obedience training, crate training, and are ready to look for a new addition. Consider if a puppy or adult would work best for your family. By skipping the puppy stages, sometimes an adult is easier to house train and accept as a new addition. The Norwich breed adapts well so rescue or retired breeding adults make wonderful companions. Breeders often have healthy adults ready for retirement at 4-6 yrs of age, which makes a mature companion with many good years left to offer. Expect to pay $1000-1500 for an adult adoption fee. This fee assists adoption agencies and ensures that someone can't profit from the adoption of adults. It isn't as much about the money as it is intended to ensure that a responsible buyer is serious about the commitment. Free or "cheap" dogs are subject to scammers who pretend to be a good home and then sell the animal for lab experimentation or profit. If a puppy is what you are looking for, ensure that you purchase a puppy from an ethical reputable breeder. Ethics involve the code of ethics for breeders. There is purpose and intent in their breeding program, to increase quality and health of the breed. They health test their dogs and breed the healthiest individuals they can. They are very familiar with their lines, where they came from, and where they are going. Health disorders are tracked from the dogs they are breeding, the lines they come from, and the offspring they produce. They provide quality care to the adults and puppies, ensure that the puppies go to quality forever homes, and are responsible to the lives of the puppies and dogs they produce. Reputable breeders mean that they have a history of providing good quality care, and good customer service. They will have happy customers and quality references including a veterinarian that they work very closely with. A reputable breeder doesn't have to have a 20yr history, everyone has to start sometime. But a reputable breeder is knowledgable, educates, is a good communicator, and their top priority is the quality placement of their animals. They should be well aware of the health disorders within the breed. They should educate the buyer about the breed, and assist families in making good decisions about purchasing a Norwich Terrier. The breed is not meant for everyone and the key to a successful match is to understand the expectations of the buyer. Reputable breeders often have waiting lists and you should expect to pay $2000-4000 depending on the puppy.When inquiring with a breeder, be prepared with your list of questions and first offer information about yourself, what you are looking for, and what your expectations are in adopting a new family member. Do you have children or what is your life stage? Do you work outside the home and if you do, are you able to drop in at home to let the puppy out mid-day? What is your experience with dogs? What breeds have you had previously and was it successful? Are you prepared to attend obedience classes and offer quality time to your new addition? Take time to talk with the breeder and expect a reputable breeder to be involved in this process. If they only push the sale of a puppy without educating or understanding the home you will provide, they are not the right breeder for you.

Much of the information you will read states that reputable breeders show to championship and that you should only purchase puppies from show breeders. However, I know several good breeders who may show from one time to another, or maybe not at all, and they are excellent breeders. They are breeding not to win titles, but for the love of the breed and the love of placing puppies in forever homes. They are honest and have beautiful dogs from reputable lines. I personally believe these breeders are ideal for a long term relationship and someone that you can connect with and feel comfortable working with. I've been made to feel inadequate and like the breeder didn't have time for me, and I certainly don't want anyone else to go through that. So if they show great! If they don't, ask more questions such as how do they judge their dogs against the AKC standard? You might find that they are an excellent breeder with strong goals and attributes to back up the reason they don't show. Simply winning titles doesn't equate honesty, integrity, or top quality lines. There are good and bad breeders in all realms.

How do you find a reputable ethical breeder? The Norwich & Norfolk club is a start, but keep in mind that this is a list of club members only. They are part of a group of people who are members because of who they know and not what they are. There are many reputable breeders who do not live close enough, or who do not want to particpate in "Club" activities. These breeders may have a circle of reputable breeders who are still great breeders but just happen to not be club members. Many of the classifieds are full of back yard breeders (breeders who only breed 1 male and 1 female pet and aren't knowledgable or have a breeding program). Scammers also steal photos from breeders and pose as a seller on those sites. The Norwich Terrier is ridden with many "fakes". Scammers crop the tails of Cairn Terriers and sell them as Norwich. You can find multiple brindle "Norwich" available and yet brindle is not even an accepted color in the breed! There is a difference in brindle vs the accepted color of grizzle! These are not AKC registered puppies and they are simply not Norwich Terriers. Bargain puppies are no bargain! Research sites that have standing breeder ads and not just single puppy ads. Puppy Dog is paid advertising for breeders. is a site that allows you to search for puppies by breed and zip code, to find a breeder nearest you. The American Kennel Club has breeder classifieds, but the ads are taken out upon a litter being born, and I never use their ads because most of my puppies are already sold at that point in time (expect breeders to have a waiting list). Once you find a breeder that you like, investigate the timeline for puppy availability. Sometimes there will be a puppy available, other times you may have to wait several months. Even planned litters are sometimes changed by nature, so be flexible and understanding of what breeders can't control. If they don't have puppies available, ask if they have friends who may have puppies available. Ethical reputable breeders often know other breeders or have friends that they would recommend. Although they will not tell you the horror stories about a particular kennel or talk about other breeders, if someone were to approach me and say they were looking at a particular kennel, and ask if that would be a good one, I may discretely tell them to keep looking.

Breeder Check List

Here is a checklist to keep in mind when shopping for a good breeder.

  • Puppies are born on premises
  • Breeder does not sell to brokers or retail shops
  • Facilities are clean and well kept
  • Puppies have been handled, and introduced to children and other dogs
  • Breeder interviews you and offers information on the breed to ensure a good match
  • Puppy comes with limited registration as a pet, and is to be spayed/neutered
  • Breeder promises to take the dog back (not return your money) if you can't keep it
  • Breeder provides a 3 day money back guarantee, and a 1-2yr health guarantee by contract
  • Breeder raises no more than 2-3 breeds, it's difficult to be competent in more breeds
  • Breeder's primary concern is finding a good home for the puppy or dog rather than making a sale
  • Breeder was happy to answer questions and makes you feel comfortable asking for advice
  • Breeder is familiar with and abides by breeder's Code of Ethics

Friday, September 19, 2008

Risk for Contagious Disease

Norwich Terrier puppies receive passive immunity from their mother's milk. The antibodies present in the mother's milk help protect puppies from disease and infections for the first few weeks of life. We administer their first vaccination at 5 1/2 wks, so that we may give a 2nd at 8 1/2 wks, before going home. Since the first vaccination is not as effective in contributing to the puppy's primary immunity due to maternal antibodies, the 2nd vaccination is much more effective in building the puppy's primary immune response. The primary immunity is the puppy's own "real" immunity. It is imperative upon taking puppies home after 8-9 wks, that you avoid exposure to strange dogs or areas where dogs frequent such as rest areas, gas stations, dog parks, etc. Puppies should be vaccinated every 3-4 wks until 15-16 weeks of age, and then should receive the rabies vaccine after 12 weeks of age. We recommend waiting until after the 3rd vaccination at 11-12 wks to start puppy obedience classes. Our policy has come about due to sending a puppy home at 8wks with only 1 vaccination, the puppy contracted Parvo after going home, and died within a week. Puppies are much better protected after 2 vaccinations and this is why we now ship puppies after they are 9wks of age, to allow for an immune response from their 2nd vaccine. We use Fort Dodge vaccines against parvo, distemper, adenovirus type II, and parainfluenza. All vets do things differently, but this is my policy formed along with my veterinarian for my dogs and geographic location. Ask your veterinarian about their recommendations based on your geographic location. Some diseases are more prevalent in areas of the country, and your puppy may require additional protection. For example our adults are vaccinated against leptospirosis since it is prevalent in our area.

The Norwich Terrier is prone to vaccine reactions, so it's imperative to ensure your veterinarian is aware of Rabies Vaccine Induced Ischemic Dermatopathy (RVI-ID). Some Norwich have a reaction to the adjuvant ingredient which triggers an auto-immune response. Symptoms may be sores or lesions in the ear, darkening of the ear pigmentation, sores on the tail or feet, dark lumps on the skin, or a lump at the injection site. Symptoms may appear immediately after the rabies vaccination, or may take days or months to be noticable. Allergic reactions to vaccine adjuvants may appear as itching, swelling, difficulty breathing, and need to be treated immediately. It may be helpful to administer Benadryl before vaccinating your Norwich Terrier. Here's an excellent article:

Obedience Training

Obedience training is a necessity with the Norwich Terrier to establish dominance and control. A disciplined, well behaved dog is going to be rewarding for you and your family. Dominating dogs can develop behavior problems such as growling, nipping, and biting to exert control of you, children, and strangers. The foundation of training, is to pair a verbal command with a behavior, and immediately reward the correct behavior. Key commands are 'sit', 'drop' (down), 'stay', and 'in your bed', in addition to walking on a lead, quietly riding in a restraining system in the car, etc. To establish dominance, they need household rules and limits such as staying off the furniture unless invited, sleeping in their crate or bed (not with you) and you should incorporate commands in their daily life. The Norwich is very intelligent and needs consistent obedience. There are a variety of training books and online information available. Training should start upon bringing your puppy home and I recommend that all families attend puppy obedience classes.

Potty Training Your Norwich Terrier

Potty training your Norwich Terrier: As a den animal, puppies will not soil the area that they consider their den if given the opportunity to go elsewhere. Our Norwich Terrier puppies use the doggie door and potty outside according to their instincts to keep their den clean. When they come to your home, they have to learn that the crate is their den and slowly expand the den area to include the rest of the house. Do not leave your puppy unattended, and return them to their crate when not actively watching them. This reduces the opportunity for accidents and increases successful potty trips. The most important part of training, is forming a schedule and sticking to it. Offer your puppy frequent opportunities to go potty, using the same spot in the yard and the same command. Offer potty trips first thing of the day, after eating, anytime they come out of the crate, and last thing of the day. Praise their success and offer play time in the house after successful trips. Tip: Bring your puppy back inside directly after going so they realize what the purpose of going outside was. Ignore them until they go, praise them upon success! Potty training is a process and the time it takes varies for each individual. We recommend a small crate for the puppy in training or a 24-30" wire crate with a divider that the puppy can grow into.

Norwich Terrier Nutrition

I’ve read about dog nutrition and what brands to recommend to my Norwich Terrier puppy customers. I’ve spoke to my veterinarian, read and researched various diets, including RAW diets, and nothing seemed to make more sense than what I already recommended. It wasn’t until recently when I read 2 articles that were congruent, both scoring beneficial brands of dog foods, and I began searching for a more holistic dog food with quality ingredients.
I knew from previous research that a dog’s diet should contain mainly protein and carbohydrates, with added vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. In looking at a dog food, read the first 3 ingredients, which should contain quality proteins. Corn, wheat, gluten, and soy are generally inferior sources of protein. They are often difficult to digest and to use by the body. They can also cause GI problems. Meat and bone meal can contain an unknown quantity of bone, which is an inferior protein, as well as by-products. Preservatives can be harmful, as well as artificial dyes. Look for powerful health promoting ingredients such as probiotics, antioxidants, chelated minerals, and vegetables.

With this information I found that several foods had been scored by starting with 10 points and deducting 1 point for each unfavorable ingredient or lack of health- promoting ingredients. The scoring for brands that I recommended was as follows: Science Diet: 4, Iams: 5, and Eukanuba: 4. This shocked me as I recommend these premium foods and yet they only scored 4-5 out of 10! The article was published by a holistic food company, so I thought they had published results in their favor to boost their own sales. I continued searching.

Another article scored multiple brands of foods on a scale of 100.
How to grade your dog's food: Start with a grade of 100: 1) For every listing of 'by-product', subtract 10 points 2) For every non-specific animal source ('meat' or 'poultry', meat, meal or fat) reference, subtract 10 points 3) If the food contains BHA, BHT, or ethoxyquin, subtract 10 points 4) For every grain 'mill run' or non-specific grain source, subtract 5 points 5) If the same grain ingredient is used 2 or more times in the first five ingredients (i.e. 'ground brown rice', 'brewers rice', 'rice flour' are all the same grain), subtract 5 points 6) If the protein sources are not meat meal and there are less than 2 meats in the top 3 ingredients, subtract 3 points 7) If it contains any artificial colorants, subtract 3 points 8 ) If it contains ground corn or whole grain corn, subtract 3 points 9) If corn is listed in the top 5 ingredients, subtract 2 more points 10) If the food contains any animal fat other than fish oil, subtract 2 points 11) If lamb is the only animal protein source (unless your dog is allergic to other protein sources), subtract 2 points 12) If it contains soy or soybeans, subtract 2 points 13) If it contains wheat (unless you know that your dog isnt allergic to wheat), subtract 2 points 14) If it contains beef (unless you know that your dog isnt allergic to beef), subtract 1 point 15) If it contains salt, subtract 1 point Extra Credit: 1) If any of the meat sources are organic, add 5 points 2) If the food is endorsed by any major breed group or nutritionist, add 5 points 3) If the food is baked not extruded, add 5 points 4) If the food contains probiotics, add 3 points 5) If the food contains fruit, add 3 points 6) If the food contains vegetables (NOT corn or other grains), add 3 points 7) If the animal sources are hormone-free and antibiotic-free, add 2 points 8 ) If the food contains barley, add 2 points 9) If the food contains flax seed oil (not just the seeds), add 2 points 10) If the food contains oats or oatmeal, add 1 point 11) If the food contains sunflower oil, add 1 point 12) For every different specific animal protein source (other than the first one; count 'chicken' and 'chicken meal' as only one protein source, but 'chicken' and '' as 2 different sources), add 1 point 13) If it contains glucosamine and chondroitin, add 1 point 14) If the vegetables have been tested for pesticides and are pesticide-free, add 1 point
94-100 = A 86-93 = B 78-85 = C 70-77 = D
Alpo Prime Cuts / Score 81 C Canidae / Score 112 A Chicken Soup Senior / Score 115 A Diamond Maintenance / Score 64 F Diamond Lamb Meal & Rice / Score 92 B Diamond Large Breed 60 Formula / Score 99 A Diamond Performance / Score 85 C Eukanuba Adult / Score 81 C Eukanuba Puppy / Score 79 C Iams Lamb Meal & Rice Formula Premium / Score 73 D Innova Dog / Score 114 A Innova Evo / Score 114 A Innova Large Breed Puppy / Score 122 A Nature’s Recipe / Score 100 A Nature’s Recipe Healthy Skin Venison and Rice / Score 116 A Nature’s Variety Raw Instinct / Score 122 A Nutra Nuggets Super Premium Lamb Meal and Rice / Score 81 C Nutrience Junior Medium Breed Puppy / Score 101 A Nutrisource Lamb and Rice / Score 87 B Nutro Max Adult / Score 93 B Nutro Natural Choice Lamb and Rice / Score 98 A Nutro Natural Choice Large Breed Puppy / Score 87 B Nutro Natural Choice Puppy Wheat Free / Score 86 B Nutro Natural Choice Senior / Score 95 A Nutro Ultra Adult / Score 104 A Purina Benful / Score 17 F Purina Dog / Score 62 F Purina Come-n-Get It / Score 16 F Purina One Large Breed Puppy / Score 62 F Royal Canin Boxer / Score 103 A Royal Canin Bulldog / Score 100 A Royal Canin Natural Blend Adult / Score 106 A Science Diet Advanced Protein Senior 7 / Score 63 F Science Diet for Large Breed Puppies / Score 69 F
(partial list, less common brands ommitted)

I’ve been the most impressed with Canidae dog food which scores A 112. The Life Stages formula is appropriate for Norwich puppies, adults, working, and seniors. Its ingredients are human grade with essential vitamins and minerals and mixed tocopherols as natural preservatives. Its holistic and herbal formula has 4 meat meals in the first 7 ingredients: chicken, turkey, lamb, and fish. The other 2 ingredients in the first 7 are brown rice and white rice. If your dog is sensitive to different meats they also offer single meat formulas. What I like in the life stages formula is that it contains 10 skin and coat conditioners, balanced Omega 6 and 3 Fatty Acids and is also contains guaranteed digestive enzymes.

The next recommendation that I make is whatever you feed your Norwich Terrier, make it convenient. I’ve searched to find that Canidae is only offered through boutiques and select stores. Visit the Canidae website for a store locator.

Breeders Code of Ethics

An Ethical Breeder Does the Following:
1. Breeds with the intent of improving the breed. Does not breed with the goal of making a profit. The costs & sales have to balance each other but if done ethically, breeding is not “profitable” if labor & expenses are accounted for. Puppy mills make profits by providing a lack in care, facilities, and mass producing in unhealthy conditions.
2. Chooses breeding adults based on health, disposition, and confirmation guided by the breed standard. Breeding pairs are matched based on these characteristics to make the next generation better.
3. An expert in the breed. Is knowledgeable about the health defects of the breed, the history, proper care, characteristics, etc. Provides health care screening and testing as appropriate for the breed.
4. Only breeds 1-3 breeds, is an expert in each, and does not cross breed. Very few crosses have meaningful purpose, such as Labradoodles to create a hypoallergenic service dog. “Designer Dog Breeds” are irresponsible and only contribute to pet overpopulation because many crosses lack the goal of ethical breeding- “to improve the breed”.
5. Provides safe, sanitary, and appropriate facilities, maximizing the healthy conditions, offering exercise, entertainment, and comfort of the dogs and puppies.
6. Dogs are kept clean and appropriately groomed.
7. Feeds premium quality food and maintains appropriate weight and condition of the dogs and puppies.
8. Provides one on one care to a whelping bitch, ensuring the safe delivery of the puppies. Monitors her before, during, and after whelping for abnormalities or complications.
9. Minimizes her stress and protects the health of the puppies for the first few weeks after whelping by not allowing public visitation.
10. Appropriately socializes puppies to loving touch and developmentally appropriate interaction at appropriate ages.
11. Does not wean and remove puppies from their mother before 6 weeks of age, and does not adopt puppies to families until at least 8 weeks of age. Although human socialization is very important at 4-8 weeks of age, even more important is dog socialization by their mother and litter mates. Human socialization is most important at 8-16 weeks of age.
12. Places puppies and dogs in forever homes appropriate for that puppy or adult. Screens prospective buyers to ensure that the breed is what they are looking for and that they are able to provide a proper home for a dog and for the breed in particular.
13. Is responsible for each puppy for its lifetime and is willing to keep any puppy that is unable to find a proper home. This includes assisting buyers in finding the dog a home if they are unable to keep it for it’s lifetime, or finding foster care for the dog until appropriate placement is found.
14. Gives appropriate, and at least standard, health care guided by a licensed veterinarian. Willing to take extra initiative to care for an individual dog or puppy, despite extra costs involved. Considers life quality and acts responsibly in the humane end of life care for a dog or puppy.
15. Keeps accurate and detailed records of the medical care, pedigree, and registry information according to the registering association’s guidelines. DNA samples are collected and registered according to the guidelines of the registering association. Dogs and puppies are appropriately identified, preferably by microchip implantation.
16. Offers puppy health guarantees. Appropriate guarantees are a money back guarantee shortly after purchase. This allows the buyer to ensure the puppy is healthy and free of communicable disease. A congenital or hereditary defect guarantee should also be offered for at least 1 year.
17. Retired breeding adults are never placed in shelters or euthanized if they are appropriate for a pet home. They should be placed in an appropriate, quality, forever pet home or provided foster care until that home is found.
18. Never sells to brokers, pet stores, or preferably not to back yard breeders. Educates buyers about the risks involved in buying from these sources, and educates the public about why back yard breeding is not ideal or appropriate.
19. Sells puppies with limited registration with a spay/neuter contract unless the puppy is sold to another ethical, reputable breeder.
20. Networks with other ethical reputable breeders and/or is a member of an association supporting their breed.
21. Shows fairness, integrity, honesty, and respect in all aspects of their personal and professional life. Good communication is imperative for good customer service, veterinarian support & interaction, etc.

Why are Norwich So Expensive?

There are few numbers and a high demand. Compared to 60,000 Golden's registered each year, there are only approximately 800 Norwich Terriers registered per year. Norwich Terriers have small litters and can have higher incidence of complications, making them difficult to breed. Waiting lists may be long with reputable breeders. Fraudulent sellers have taken Cairn Terriers, cropped their tail, and sold them online as Norwich for the inflated prices. Norwich Terriers do not come in brindle like a Cairn! Beware of any breeder who is selling dark colored, brindle "Norwich". For the approved colors in the breed, click here. Quality Norwich are $2000-4000 for pets. The bargain Norwich on the internet are no bargain! Ensure you are purchasing DNA verified AKC registered puppies from a reputable breeder. Reputable breeders sell AKC pets with limited registration to forever pet homes. They are knowledgable, health test their dogs, and want to know that you can provide the ideal home for their puppies. They will ask you questions about you, your family, and the home you can provide before making puppies available. By only working with reputable breeders, you'll have a longer lived more quality family companion that will resemble the breed.

The Norwich Terrier

General Appearance: The Norwich Terrier, spirited and stocky with sensitive prick ears and a slightly foxy expression, is one of the smallest working terriers. This sturdy descendent of ratting companions, eager to dispatch small vermin alone or in a pack, has good bone and substance and an almost weatherproof coat. A hardy hunt terrier-honorable scars from fair wear and tear are acceptable. Size, Proportion, Substance

One of the smallest of the terriers, the ideal height should not exceed 10 inches at the withers. Distance from the top of the withers to the ground and from the withers to base of tail are approximately equal. Good bone and substance. Weight approximately 12 pounds. It should be in proportion to the individual dog's structure and balance. Fit working condition is a prime consideration. Head: A slightly foxy expression. Eyes small, dark and oval shaped with black rims. Placed well apart with a bright and keen expression. Ears medium size and erect. Set well apart with pointed tips. Upright when alert.The skull is broad and slightly rounded with good width between the ears. The muzzle is wedge shaped and strong. Its length is about one-third less than the measurement from the occiput to the well-defined stop. The jaw is clean and strong. Nose and lip pigment black. Tight-lipped with large teeth. A scissor bite. Neck, Topline, Body Neck of medium length, strong and blending into well laid back shoulders. Level topline. Body moderately short. Compact and deep. Good width of chest. Well-sprung ribs and short loins. Tail medium docked. The terrier's working origin requires that the tail be of sufficient length to grasp. Base level with topline; carried erect. Forequarters: Well laid back shoulders. Elbows close to ribs. Short, powerful legs, as straight as is consistent with the digging terrier. Pasterns firm. Feet round with thick pads. Nails black. The feet point forward when standing or moving. Hindquarters Broad, strong and muscular with well-turned stifles. Hocks low set and straight when viewed from the rear. Feet as in front. Coat Hard, wiry and straight, lying close to the body with a definite undercoat. The coat on neck and shoulders forms a protective mane. The hair on head, ears and muzzle, except for slight eyebrows and whiskers, is short and smooth. This breed should be shown with as natural a coat as possible. A minimum of tidying is permissible but shaping should be heavily penalized. ColorAll shades of red, wheaten, black and tan or grizzle. White marks are not desirable. Gait: The legs moving parallel, extending forward, showing great powers of propulsion. Good rear angulation with a true, yet driving movement. The forelegs move freely with feet and elbows the same distance apart, converging slightly with increased pace. Hind legs follow in the track of the forelegs, flexing well at the stifle and hock. The topline remains level. Temperament: Gay, fearless, loyal and affectionate. Adaptable and sporting, they make ideal companions.